TYPES OF TREES
Douglas Fir - Some market value
This magnificent specimen has a pyramid shape and a straight trunk. The needles are about 1" long with a blunt tip, bluish green, occasionally yellowish green. It prefers sun or light shade, moist, well drained, acid or neutral soil, but is found in its native habit on rocky mountain slopes.
Western Red Cedar - Some market value
Actually a "False Cedar", it has tiny, scale-like leaves that overlap like shingles and form flat sprays like a fern. It has distinctive, small cones that remain on the tree long after their seeds are gone. Some are round, but others are not. The wood is very aromatic.
Alder - Low market value
These trees have alternate, egg-shaped leaves with serrated or doubly serrated margins, small woody cones about 1" long and are commonly found in moist areas next to water. Their peculiar woody cones (called strobiles) identify alders as surely as a flat tail identifies a eaver. They hang from the tree throughout winter like miniature lanterns. Alder leaves are shed while still green.
Western Hemlock - Low market value
Needles are yellow-green on top with two white bands on their undersides, all very short, but have distinctly different sizes on the same twig. They tend to stick out the sides of the twigs, but also occur on top of the twig. Cones are egg-shaped and about 1 inch long. This tree grows like a weed and is known as the "Cinderella of the Northwest" for its versatility and potential for management.
Maple - Low market value
Leaves are simple, opposite and deciduous; palmately lobed and veined, has fruit that is a double samara that looking like a pair of airplane propellers with wood, especially burl wood, is highly valued. Very fast-growing. Leaves are green on top and silvery-white on the underside, shimmering and dancing in the breeze. Tolerates a wide range of soil conditions.
Spruce - Low market value
Needles are generally stiff and sharp; about 1" long. Each needle springs from a tiny, woody peg. Most cones have papery thin scales and most spruce bark is thin and flaky. Rated one of the most popular evergreens. It grows well while young.
White Pine - Low market value
Needles occur in bundles of 5; 2-4" long with white lines on 2 sides of each 3-sided needle. It has woody cones, 5-12" long slender and curved. Cone scales are thin and often curve up on the end. The bark is dark and broken into small squares or rectangles on older trees (smooth on young trees). Bark often "ringed" where a whorl of branches once grew.
Oak - No market value
Leaves are simple and alternate and are most commonly lobed and deciduous, but may be unlobed and persistent. Twigs have star-shaped piths. The fruit is an acorn. Buds are large and clustered at the tips of their twigs.
Cottonwood, Poplar and Aspen - No market value
Leaves are simple, alternate, and deciduous and tend to have silvery or white backsides and very long leaf stems that make them flop and twist in the wind. Fruits are cottony with tiny seeds. They are commonly triangular in shape, but may be more rounded. Edges may be smooth or toothed. Young bark is typically light in color but it does not peel like birches.
Ash - No market value
Leaves are uniquely opposite, pinnately compound. Single-winged fruit is shaped like a canoe. Some say it is because ashes grow near water and their seeds are designed for floating. Bark is crisscrossed with ridges and resembles a woven net.
Madrone - No market value
Our Northwest species is famous for peeling, reddish bark. Leaves are persistent, simple and alternate. Generally oblong in shape with either smooth or serrated edges. Small, white, bell-shaped flowers in clusters. Fruits resemble small oranges. A favorite of many species of birds.
Birch - No market value
Leaves are small, alternate, and generally traingular in shape; always have serrated margins. It has paperlike bark with large horizontal lenticels and fruit is a 1" long papery, disintegrating cylindrical cone
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